“神奇蘑菇”可以缓解抑郁症状。
学分:奈杰尔·华莱士/Shutterstock

Psilocybin“的主要成分magic mushrooms,“可以缓解抑郁症状,according to a very preliminary study.

这项研究的样本量很小,只有20名患者,没有对照组为了比较而服用安慰剂。That makes it hard to draw firm conclusions about if or how well the hallucinogenic compound really works at fightingdepression.但是来自新研究的大脑扫描数据表明,psilocybin确实会影响与抑郁症相关的大脑网络。

“Larger studies are needed to see if this positive effect can be reproduced in more patients,“study author David Nutt,伦敦帝国理工学院精神药理学教授,,在声明中说.“But these initial findings are exciting and provide another treatment avenue to explore."[6.可能有益健康的党药]

研究人员将注意力集中在20名曾尝试过标准抑郁症治疗的人身上,发现他们缺乏。Each participant,被归类为有抗抑郁治疗,took a 10-milligram dose of psilocybin,然后一周后再注射25毫克,足以引起幻觉。治疗前和第二次给药后一天,受试者接受了脑部扫描,以测量血液流量的变化和脑部区域之间的联系。Nineteen out of the 20 patients made it through the whole study.

最引人注目的发现是服用psilocybin,自然存在于数百种蘑菇中,抑郁症状明显减轻。Scores on the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology,一种常用的抑郁症筛查方法,在第二次给药后的一天中,27次平均下降了约10个点。所有患者的症状都有所下降,研究人员于10月10日报道。13在科学报告杂志上,and 12 experienced at least a 50 percent decline.[关于“神奇”蘑菇的11个奇怪事实]

Some scientists have suggested a honeymoon-like period in the days following a psychedelic experience,the researchers noted in their paper.看看是否有任何大脑变化与相关的情绪改善和压力缓解(通常称为余辉)有关,研究人员在给药后一天扫描了参与者的大脑,他们写道。

The brain-scan data showed reduced blood flow to the left amygdala,an almond-size region tucked deep in the brain that handles emotion and fear.研究人员还发现,在默认模式网络(一个大脑区域网络)中,人们在白日梦中或在没有做任何特定任务的情况下思考事情时,这种网络最活跃。Inectroconvulsive therapy,in which electric current is run through the brain as a depression treatment,默认模式网络迅速变得不太正常,然后恢复到基线状态之外,Nutt and his colleagues wrote.类似的东西可能在玩psilocybin,which may initially disrupt and then"reset"这个网络,给大脑一个新的开始,即使在治疗五周后,也能减少抑郁症状。

“Based on what we know from various迷幻药的脑成像研究,同时也要注意人们对自己经历的看法,it may be that psychedelics do indeed 'reset' the brain networks associated with depression,effectively enabling them to be lifted from the depressed state,“study leader Robin Carhart-Harris,the head of psychedelic research at Imperial College,said in a statement.

But the treatment isn't yet ready for prime time.没有对照组,the researchers can't be sure that the patients weren't just experiencing a placebo effect.相反,他们写道,这项研究应该被视为探索迷幻药治疗抑郁症的第一步。还需要做更多的工作来检查psilocybin和其他治疗因素之间的相互作用,如治疗支持,他们写道。

尽管如此,这不是第一个表明psilocybin对抑郁症患者有一些好处的研究。In 2011,a similarly small study found that a year after taking psilocybin,participantsreported higher life satisfaction and well-being,以及精神上的提升和家庭关系的改善。Psilocybin seems to prompt a sense of connectedness and meaning,which could be a mental health boon,那些研究人员当时告诉《活科学》。vwin电子竞技

同样在2011,研究人员报告说,一个psilocybin的经验made people more open to new experiencesfor at least a year after the fact — a basic personality change that is rare to see in psychology.psilocybin也被证明可以帮助人们摆脱拒绝的感觉.

然而,致幻剂也有危险的副作用。A 2017 study conducted by Johns Hopkins University found that of more than 2,有1000人“糟糕的旅行”裸盖菇素10%的人认为他们在插曲期间对自己或他人构成了危险。

“考虑到被访者有时报告的消极影响和积极结果,调查结果证实了我们的观点,即无论是用户还是研究人员都不能对与psilocybin相关的风险轻率行事,“罗兰·格里菲斯,约翰霍普金斯大学医学院的心理药理学家,,在声明中说关于那项研究。

Original article onvwin电子竞技.